Integrated Library System Requirements for Music Materials

[draft revision of Automation Requirements for Music Materials]

The Music Library Association's Subcommittee on Integrated Library Systems is charged "to identify requirements for integrated library systems that are of unique or special concern to music materials; to evaluate, but not endorse, existing systems on how effectively they meet these requirements, and to coordinate the dissemination of this information to the membership."   The committee has identified and defined these requirements without reference to the style of any particular system.  The five areas that this document covers—indexing and searching, bibliographic display, cataloging and authority control, acquisitions, and circulation—are common to all integrated library systems.

It is fundamental that the system will allow input, output, and updates for all MARC 21 formats. Storage of the records in the MARC 21 format is not necessary as long as the system accommodates all the data elements in the current version of the relevant MARC 21 Format documents.  References to numeric tags apply to both MARC 21 data fields and their equivalents in non-MARC 21 systems.

In the specifications that follow, "will" is used to indicate system requirements that are mandatory for the searching and handling of music materials in libraries.  The term "should" describes features that considerably enhance the effectiveness of the system for handling music information.

Among the mandatory requirements not yet realized in all existing systems, uniform title functionality is a primary concern.  Uniform titles appear extensively (but not exclusively) in music records because 1) many works are known by generic names that can be formulated in many different ways, even in the same language (e.g., “Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony”, “Symphony no. 9,” “Choral Symphony”), and 2) works often appear in collective publications, such as sound recordings containing numerous works by the same composer or different composers.  The Appendix of Sample Search Result Displays illustrates the typical variety of transcribed titles for a musical work and the contingent need for proper uniform title indexing, sorting, and display.

  1. INDEXING/SEARCHING REQUIREMENTS
    1. General
      1. All search options applicable to public use will be available from all in-house workstations; other modes of searching should be available from all staff workstations.
      2. It should be possible to search using either menus or commands, both separately and in combination.
      3. The system will to the greatest extent possible ignore or forgive variations in spacing, punctuation, case, and diacritics.
      4. The system should have the ability to right-truncate search statements and to prevent truncation, at the user's discretion.
      5. A search history should be available to the user; this history will display the number of hits for each search step and will be viewable without losing the current search.
      6. Online, context-sensitive help will be available at any time without losing the search in progress.

    2. Searching
      1. The end result of any search will be the same in all search interfaces, regardless of the order of steps (e.g., whether one searches author-then-title, or title-then-author).
      2. Search options will remain substantially the same (as far as this is consistent with logic) regardless of the order of steps.
      3. It will be possible to obtain appropriate bibliographic records through any type of initial search, without rekeying (e.g., searching on a name-title cross-reference would cause the necessary chain reaction leading to records using the proper uniform title).
      4. Searches in which multiple indexes can be combined in the same search argument will be allowed.
      5. Full Boolean searching will be available; this includes searching by any combination of access points, or by more than one term from a single access point.
      6. In searches drawing upon more than one index, it will be possible to specify the index to be searched for a particular data element.
      7. It will be possible to interrupt a long search (a search in which the results are taking a long time to be retrieved and displayed), with patron options to revise, see partial results, continue, abandon the search, etc.
      8. It should be possible to specify adjacency as well as single words.
      9. It will be possible to limit a search, either at the beginning or at any time during the search, by any currently valid format, material type or other data coded in the MARC 21 record in the fixed fields, 006, 007, or 008, or given in the 245 $h. It should be possible to limit by other criteria specified by the local library, such as location, date, or publisher.
      10. Coded data that can be incorporated into a search will be available to patrons in an expanded, readily intelligible form. This form may be built into the system or may be specified by the individual library.
      11. It will be possible to include in search strings any symbol currently included in the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) character set or non-ASCII characters such as the sharp and flat. A system-defined synonym for any such symbol may be used.
    3. Access Points

      The access points specified in this section are not the only desirable access points but those particularly relevant to music materials.
      1. Combined name/title searching will be possible for 1xx/240, 1xx/240 $p, 1xx/245, 1xx/245 $p, 7xx $a/$t, 7xx $a/$p, 8xx $a/$t, and 8xx $a/$p fields. (It should be understood throughout this document that by $t and $p, we mean $t and $p and all following subfields that contain title information). Linkage between any title ($t or 240) and its parent name field will be retained in searching.
      2. Headings and cross-references from name/title authority records, transcribed titles, and uniform titles (including their associated names, if any) will be searchable together by the public (i.e., it will be possible to search a title without knowing what sort of title it is). It should be possible, however, to restrict a search to either uniform titles or transcribed titles only.
      3. Name of title part ($p) will be retrievable as title data, both separately and in combination with other access points.
      4. It should be possible to search any number or combination of characters in any indexed field.

    4. Stop lists and synonym lists
      1. The system should allow any stop list to be locally defined. It will be possible to override this list during a search.
      2. The system should allow the creation of a locally defined synonym list, so that a search entered in one way (e.g., with a common misspelling) will be performed as if it had been entered as defined in the list (e.g., correctly spelled). If such a synonym list exists, it will be possible to override it during a search.

    5. Index Attributes
      1. Indexes will include, at a minimum,
        1. Names (1xx, 600, 610, 7xx, 8xx [in all cases, all subfields except $t and following subfields]).
        2. Titles (all applicable fields, including but not limited to 130, 240, 440, 630, 730, 740, and 830; as well as 245 $a, $n, $p, $b; 246 $a; 1xx $t; 4xx $t; 6xx $t; 7xx $t; 8xx $t) In all cases, $t means $t and all following subfields that contain title information).
        3. Name/title (all applicable fields and subfields, including but not limited to 1xx/240, 1xx/245, 7xx $a/$t, 8xx $a/$t). Title parts ($p) will be retrievable as title data.
        4. Subjects (6xx).
        5. Keyword (in both bibliographic and authority records; as applicable, author, title, contents notes [505 in bibliographic records], subject). It should be possible at the library's discretion to include other fields in this index; keywording of other notes, series statements (including series numbering), and of the publisher (260 $b) are particularly desirable.
        6. Music numbers (028 and 024 fields) and all other 02x fields.
      2. The system will allow a separate Table of Contents index.
      3. The system should allow construction of a separate index for form and genre terminology (655 field and 650 $v).
      4. The system should allow natural-language searching of the coded fields 047 and 048 and the fixed field naming composition type.
      5. It will be possible to include a field or subfield in more than one index.
      6. All subfields that contain spelled-out information, rather than codes, will be part of the indexed entry, with the exception of $h (medium qualifier) and $e (relator term). It should be possible, however, to index relator codes ($4) and relator terms ($e). Unindexed subfields will be available for display at the library's option.
      7. Uniform titles attached to name headings will be indexed in such a way that the dependent title is always retrieved with the appropriate name heading.

  2. BIBLIOGRAPHIC DISPLAY
    1. General
      1. The system will allow display of any sort of record or any field from any sort of record, at the library's option.
      2. The display of search results will include the search string entered by the user.
      3. Uniform titles from $t or from field 240 will be displayed with the associated name from the parent field ($a or 1xx); and names appearing in name/title combinations will not be displayed without their dependent $t uniform titles.
      4. The display will include cross references from authority records, filed alphabetically within the bibliographic record citations.

    2. Individual Record Displays.
      1. Institutions will be able to select and configure the display of information on brief and full records; further, institutions will be able to customize the display of full records, including the use of labels to identify the various parts of the bibliographic record.
      2. Brief Individual Record Displays.

        1. The individual record display of a brief record will include (in addition to appropriate data from fields 1xx, 24x, etc.) the following data:
          1. For printed music, sufficient bibliographic information to distinguish scores clearly from parts, and miniature scores from full scores. Such information may be displayed from the 300 field $a and $c.
          2. For sound recordings and media, the Specific Material Designation (300 or 305 $a, or as derived from MARC 21 006, 007, and 008 fields).
          3. For sound recordings and videorecordings, $a of 028 field.
        2. In non-MARC 21 displays, adequate visual discrimination between the uniform title and the transcribed title, such as placement of the uniform title in square brackets or in a separately labeled area, should be provided.

      3. Full Individual Record Displays.
        1. The system will be capable of displaying records in MARC 21 format as well as in a labeled or other customized format.
        2. The system will be capable of showing in the customized bibliographic display any and all fields in the MARC 21 record that contain bibliographic data (as opposed to codes).
        3. The system will be capable of accepting and retaining any order of the variable fields in MARC 21 records (not necessarily in ascending MARC 21 tag order) regardless of the record source or method of input. Further, the system shall allow this order of all fields, or within selected field groups (e.g., all 5xx and 6xx fields), from the MARC 21 record to be reflected in the customized, non-MARC 21 display as specified by the local library.

    3. Multiple Matches
      1. When all entries on a screen have certain bibliographic characteristics and data in common, such information may be displayed once, if this treatment can be readily understood by the user.
      2. The display will include fields 1xx and 24x when present in the bibliographic data. The 245 field will not be displayed without the 240 when it is present. Truncation of the 245 display may occur when necessary. (See Appendix, Sample Display #2)

 

      1. The General Material Designation (GMD) or bibliographic record type will be displayed in intelligible form along with each citation so that various formats of material can readily be distinguished.
      2. Entries retrieved from name searches should display in intelligible form any $4 information associated with the name in each record.
      3. Users should have the option of requesting that the results of any type of search be limited to and/or sorted by the format of the material (e.g., book, score, or sound recording).

    1. Sorting of Displays of Bibliographic Citations.
      1. Display of multiple citations under any single name heading will sort alphabetically by uniform title (240, 7xx $t, 8xx $t) if present, in one alphabetical sequence. (See Appendix, Sample Display #1)
      2. Titles and other fields containing opus numbers, thematic index numbers, or other sequential numeric designators should file in correct numeric sequence as integers (not according to ASCII filing conventions, which create a decimal arrangement). Numeric designators should sort first by number, then by alphabetic prefix or suffix, whether or not the letters and numbers are separated by a space.
      3. The system will provide clear guide screens to facilitate moving around within the alphabetical sequence.
      4. The system will not limit the number of items retrieved by any search.

  1. CATALOGING AND AUTHORITY CONTROL
    1. The system will feature different levels of authorization for modifying bibliographic and authority data in order to protect the integrity of the catalog.
       
    2. The system will allow consultation of online versions of cataloging rules, code lists, lists of locations, and other reference tools in a windows or windows-like environment, so that exiting from the current editing process is not necessary.

    3. The system will be capable of associating name/uniform title authority records with appropriate bibliographic records, whether the name/uniform title is represented in the bibliographic record as a combination of 1xx and 240 fields (or 1xx/245 $a when there is no 240), or as a single 6xx with $t, 7xx with $t, or 8xx with $t. Bibliographic records to be associated with a name/title authority record should include both those with fields matching the name and title exactly and those that designate other manifestations, parts, versions, arrangements, etc., of the work specified by the authority record.
    4. The system will support automatic replacement of incoming headings in bibliographic records which are cross references in authority records with their corresponding valid heading. The system will fully support global change capabilities. Library staff should have the option of receiving notification, either online or via printed report, of potential changes, so that staff may verify changes before they are made. However, in no instance will the system change 245 $a to match an authority record; rather the system will add, or prompt library staff to add, field 240 or 130, as appropriate.

    5. The system will likewise support replacement of an authority record with an updated version of itself, in which the previously valid heading has become a "See" cross reference (field 4xx) and a new valid heading has been added. It will be possible to protect selected fields (e.g., locally- defined cross references) on authority records from overlay during the replacement process. The appropriate fields or subfields of all associated bibliographic records will be automatically revised, or tagged for possible revision, to reflect the new heading. Library staff should have the option of receiving notification, either online or via printed report, of potential changes, so that staff may verify changes before they are made. It should also be possible to specify that no such notification is desired, in which the fields and subfields in question will be revised automatically.

    6. The system should have the ability to detect incoming bibliographic and authority records that are duplicates of records already in the database.  The rules that determine if a record is a potential duplicate should be fully customizable by MARC field.  Once a potential duplicate is identified, the cataloger should have the option of rejecting the incoming record, accepting the incoming record as a new (non-duplicate) record, or overlaying the old record with the incoming one.

    7. For bibliographic records which lack a 240 field (in cases where it was not supplied because it would be identical to the 245 $a), the system should match 1xx/245 $a combinations with existing name/title authority records and associate the matching bibliographic record(s) with the authority record.

  2. ACQUISITIONS
    1. The system will support and interpret the MARC 21 holdings format.

    2. In addition to other basic bibliographic elements (1xx, 245, 260), the system will allow entry and printing of the following fields on purchase orders: 02x (standard numbers; it will be possible to print multiple 02x fields); 240 (uniform title); 300 (physical description).

  3. CIRCULATION
    1. Upon scanning the barcode, the system should display the item's author, title, and call number, and number of pieces comprising the item.

    2. The system should prompt a check for number of pieces attached to the title before accepting the charge-out, and before discharging and eliminating patron information, allowing for backout if the number of pieces does not match.

    3. The system will support customized circulation policies for each circulation location within a library system.  It should allow for varying loan periods, fine structures, and circulation rules for each location, based on material type and/or patron classification.

APPENDIX OF SAMPLE DISPLAYS

 

Search Result Display #1


II.D.1. Display of multiple citations under any single name heading will sort alphabetically by uniform title (240, 7xx $t, 8xx $t) if present, in one alphabetical sequence.

 

 

number of collocated citations

 uniform titles sort and display in one alphabetical sequence

5

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827. Concertos, piano, orchestra

10

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827. Concertos, piano, orchestra, no. 1, op. 15, C major

2

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827. Concertos, piano, orchestra, no. 1, op. 15, C major; arr.

9

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827. Concertos, piano, orchestra, no. 2, op. 19, Bb major

1

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827. Concertos, piano, orchestra, no. 2, op. 19, Bb major; arr.

1

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827. Concertos, piano, orchestra, no. 2, op. 19, Bb major. Rondo.

14

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827. Concertos, piano, orchestra, no. 3, op. 37, C minor

1

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827. Concertos, piano, orchestra, no. 3, op. 37, C minor. Allegro con brio; arr.

17

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827. Concertos, piano, orchestra, no. 4, op. 58, G major [link to Display #2 below]

2

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827. Concertos, piano, orchestra, no. 4, op. 58, G major; arr.

 

 

 

 


Search Result Display #2

II.C.1: When all entries on a screen have certain bibliographic characteristics and data in common, such information may be displayed once, if this treatment can be readily understood by the user.
II.C.2: The display will include fields 1xx and 24x when present in the bibliographic data. The 245 field will not be displayed without the 240 when it is present. Truncation of the 245 display may occur when necessary.
II.C.3:
The General Material Designation (GMD) or bibliographic record type will be displayed in intelligible form along with each citation so that various formats of material can readily be distinguished.

 

 

 

transcribed titles file together under the name/uniform title

format designation

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827. Concertos, piano, orchestra, no. 4,
 op. 58, G major

1

Artur Rubinstein plays Beethoven & Saint-Saëns

sound recording

2

Concerto no. 4, G major, op. 58 / Beethoven

sound recording

3

Concerto no. 4, G major, op. 58 / Ludwig van Beethoven

score

4

Concerto no. 4 in G major for piano & orchestra, op. 58 / Beethoven. Concerto no. 25 in C major for piano & orchestra, K. 503 / Mozart

sound recording

5

Concertos for piano and orchestra [sound recording] : no. 3 op. 37 ; no. 4 op. 58 / Ludwig van Beethoven ; cadenzas and lead-ins, Robert Levin.

sound recording

6

Five piano concertos.

score

7

Klavierkonzerte [sound recording] = Piano concertos = Concertos pour piano : no. 3, op. 37 ; no. 4, op. 58 / Ludwig van Beethoven.

sound recording

8

Konzert für Klavier und Orchester Nr. 4 G-dur = G major = Sol majeur : Opus 58 / Beethoven ; herausgegeben von Hans-Werner Küthen.

score

9

Piano concerto 4, G major, op. 58 = Concierto para piano 4, sol mayor / Beethoven.

score

10

Piano concerto no. 3,op. 37; Piano concerto no. 4,op. 58 [sound recording] / Beethoven.

sound recording

11

Piano concerto no. 4 in G major, op. 58.

score

12

Piano concertos nos. 2 & 4 [sound recording] / Ludwig van Beethoven ; cadenzas, Wilhelm Kempff.

sound recording

13

Piano concertos nos. 3 & 4 [sound recording] / Beethoven.

sound recording

14

Piano concertos nos. 4 & 5 [sound recording] / Beethoven.

sound recording

15

Triple concerto, C major, op. 56 ; Piano concerto, G major, op. 58 [sound recording] / Beethoven.

sound recording

16

Walter Gieseking. I [sound recording].

sound recording

17

Wartime archives of the RRG (1942-1944) [sound recording].

sound recording


Revised April, 2005 by the Integrated Library Systems Subcommittee (Russell Tinkham, chair, Janet Bochin, Robert Lipartito, Verletta Kern, Constance Mayer, Gary Mayhood, Mary Wedgewood)

 

Revised February 2005 by the Integrated Library Systems Subcommittee (Rashidah Hakeem, Chair, Russell Tinkham, Kathy Blough, Victor Cardell, Avery Sharp, Janet Bochin)

 

Revised February 2004 by the Integrated Library Systems Subcommittee (Kenneth Calkins, Chair; Kathy Blough, Victor Cardell, Rashidah Z. Hakeem, Brooke Lippy, Avery Sharp). Original version, Automation Requirements for Music Materials,

 

submitted by the Automation Subcommittee, February 2000  (Jean Harden, Chair; Ann Caldwell; members to 1998: Judy MacLeod, Linda Hartig, Lowell Ashley, Pat Ramage; members from 1998: Paul Gahn, Anna Sylvester, Joan O'Connor).